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In many cases, the electrical energy released is the difference in the cohesive or bond energies of the metals, oxides, or molecules undergoing the electrochemical reaction. For instance, energy can be stored in Zn or Li, which are high-energy metals because they are not stabilized by d-electron bonding, unlike transition metals. Batteries are designed such that the energetically favorable redox reaction can occur only if electrons move through the external part of the circuit. A battery consists of some number of voltaic cells; each cell consists of two half-cells connected in series by a conductive electrolyte containing metal cations.

One half-cell includes electrolyte and the negative electrode, the electrode to which anions migrate. Cations are reduced at the cathode ; some cells use different electrolytes for each half-cell. Each half-cell has an electromotive force relative to a standard; the net emf of the cell is the difference between the emfs of its half-cells. The name comes from the order of the first six keys on the top left letter row of the keyboard; the QWERTY design is based on a layout created for the Sholes and Glidden typewriter and sold to E. Remington and Sons in , it became popular with the success of the Remington No.

In October , Sholes filed a patent application for his early writing machine he developed with the assistance of his friends Carlos Glidden and Samuel W. Firstly, characters were mounted on metal arms or type bars, which would clash and jam if neighbouring arms were pressed at the same time or in rapid succession.

Secondly, its printing point was located beneath the paper carriage, invisible to the operator, a so-called "up-stroke" design. Jams were serious, because the typist could only discover the mishap by raising the carriage to inspect what had been typed; the solution was to place used letter-pairs so that their type bars were not neighbouring, avoiding jams. Sholes struggled for the next five years to perfect his invention, making many trial-and-error rearrangements of the original machine's alphabetical key arrangement; the study of bigram frequency by educator Amos Densmore, brother of the financial backer James Densmore , is believed to have influenced the array of letters, but the contribution was called into question.

Others suggest instead. In November he changed the arrangement of the latter half of the alphabet, O to Z, right-to-left. Remington and Sons. The keyboard layout was finalized within a few months by Remington's mechanics and was presented: After they purchased the device, Remington made several adjustments, creating a keyboard with the modern QWERTY layout. These adjustments included placing the "R" key in the place allotted to the period key. The QWERTY layout depicted in Sholes's patent is different from the modern layout, most notably in the absence of the numerals 0 and 1, with each of the remaining numerals shifted one position to the left of their modern counterparts.

The letter M is located at the end of the third row to the right of the letter L rather than on the fourth row to the right of the N, the letters X and C are reversed, most punctuation marks are in different positions or are missing entirely. Typists who learned on these machines learned the habit of using the uppercase letter I for the digit one, the uppercase O for the zero. In early designs, some characters were produced by printing two symbols with the carriage in the same position.

For instance, the exclamation point, which shares a key with the numeral 1 on modern keyboards , could be reproduced by using a three-stroke combination of an apostrophe , a backspace , a period. A semicolon was produced by printing a comma over a colon; as the backspace key is slow in simple mechanical typewriters, a more professional approach was to block the carriage by pressing and holding the space bar while printing all characters that needed to be in a shared position.

To make this possible, the carriage was designed to advance forward only after releasing the space bar. The 0 key was added and standardized in its modern position early in the history of the typewriter, but the 1 and exclamation point were left off some typewriter keyboards into the s. There were no particular technological requirements for the QWERTY layout, since at the time there were ways to make a typewriter without the "up-stroke" typebar mechanism that had required it to be devised.

Color Color, or colour, is the characteristic of human visual perception described through color categories, with names such as red, yellow, blue, or purple. This perception of color derives from the stimulation of cone cells in the human eye by electromagnetic radiation in the visible spectrum. Color categories and physical specifications of color are associated with objects through the wavelength of the light, reflected from them; this reflection is governed by the object's physical properties such as light absorption, emission spectra, etc. By defining a color space, colors can be identified numerically by coordinates, which in were named in global agreement with internationally agreed color names like mentioned above by the International Commission on Illumination ; the RGB color space for instance is a color space corresponding to human trichromacy and to the three cone cell types that respond to three bands of light: long wavelengths, peaking near — nm.

There may be more than three color dimensions in other color spaces, such as in the CMYK color model, wherein one of the dimensions relates to a color's colorfulness.


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The photo-receptivity of the "eyes" of other species varies from that of humans and so results in correspondingly different color perceptions that cannot be compared to one another. Honeybees and bumblebees for instance have trichromatic color vision sensitive to ultraviolet but is insensitive to red.

Papilio butterflies may have pentachromatic vision; the most complex color vision system in the animal kingdom has been found in stomatopods with up to 12 spectral receptor types thought to work as multiple dichromatic units. The science of color is sometimes called chromatics , colorimetry , or color science, it includes the study of the perception of color by the human eye and brain, the origin of color in materials, color theory in art, the physics of electromagnetic radiation in the visible range.

Electromagnetic radiation is characterized by its intensity; when the wavelength is within the visible spectrum, it is known as "visible light". Most light sources emit light at many different wavelengths. Although the spectrum of light arriving at the eye from a given direction determines the color sensation in that direction, there are many more possible spectral combinations than color sensations.

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In fact, one may formally define a color as a class of spectra that give rise to the same color sensation, although such classes would vary among different species, to a lesser extent among individuals within the same species. In each such class the members are called metamers of the color in question; the familiar colors of the rainbow in the spectrum—named using the Latin word for appearance or apparition by Isaac Newton in —include all those colors that can be produced by visible light of a single wavelength only, the pure spectral or monochromatic colors.

The table at right shows approximate wavelengths for various pure spectral colors; the wavelengths listed are as measured in vacuum. The color table should not be interpreted as a definitive list—the pure spectral colors form a continuous spectrum, how it is divided into distinct colors linguistically is a matter of culture and historical contingency.

A common list identifies six main bands: red, yellow, green and violet. Newton's conception included a seventh color, between blue and violet, it is possible that what Newton referred to as blue is nearer to what today is known as cyan , that indigo was the dark blue of the indigo dye, being imported at the time. The intensity of a spectral color, relative to the context in which it is viewed, may alter its perception considerably; the color of an object depends on both the physics of the object in its environment and the characteristics of the perceiving eye and brain.

Physically, objects can be said to have the color of the light leaving their surfaces, which depends on the spectrum of the incident illumination and the reflectance properties of the surface, as well as on the angles of illumination and viewing; some objects not only reflect light, but transmit light or emit light themselves, which contributes to the color.

A viewer's perception of the object's color depends not only on the spectrum of the light leaving its surface, but on a host of contextual cues, so that color differences between objects can be discerned independent of the lighting spectrum, viewing angle, etc. This effect is known as color constancy. Some generalizations of the physics can be drawn, neglecting perceptual effects for now: Light arriving at an opaque surface is either reflected "specularly", scattered, or absorbed — or some combination of these.

Opaque objects that do not reflect specularly have their color determined by which wavelengths of light they scatter strongly. If objects scatter all wavelengths with r. Mobile operating system A mobile operating system is an operating system for phones, smartwatches, or other mobile devices. While computers such as typical laptops are'mobile', the operating systems used on them are not considered mobile ones, as they were designed for desktop computers that did not have or need specific mobile features; this distinction is becoming blurred in some newer operating systems that are hybrids made for both uses.

Mobile operating systems combine features of a personal computer operating system with other features useful for mobile or handheld use. By Q1 , over million smartphones were sold with Android alone is more popular than the popular desktop operating system Windows, in general smartphone use outnumber desktop use. Mobile devices with mobile communications abilities contain two mobile operating systems — the main user-facing software platform is supplemented by a second low-level proprietary real-time operating system which operates the radio and other hardware.

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Research has shown that these low-level systems may contain a range of security vulnerabilities permitting malicious base stations to gain high levels of control over the mobile device. Mobile operating systems have majority use since , thus traditional desktop OS is now a minority used kind of OS. However, variations occur in popularity by regions, while desktop-minority applies on some days in regions such as United States and United Kingdom.

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Symbian was used by many major mobile phone brands, above all by Nokia. BlackBerry releases its first smartphone. By , webOS devices were discontinued. September — Apple releases iOS 6. September — Apple releases iOS 7. October Canonical announced Ubuntu Touch , a version of the Linux distribution expressly designed for smartphones; the OS is built on the Android Linux kernel, using Android drivers and services, but does not use any of the Java-like code of Android.

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Google releases Android KitKat 4. February — Microsoft releases Windows Phone 8. September Apple releases iOS 9. Google releases Android 6. October — On October 26, BlackBerry announced that there are no plans to release new APIs and software development kits for BlackBerry 10, future updates would focus on security and privacy enhancements only. November — Microsoft releases Windows 10 Mobile. June — Apple announced iOS August — Google posted the Fuchsia source code on GitHub. August — Google released Android 7. September — Apple released iOS November — Tizen released Tizen 3.

November — BlackBerry released BlackBerry April — Samsung offic. Computer keyboard In computing, a computer keyboard is a typewriter-style device which uses an arrangement of buttons or keys to act as mechanical levers or electronic switches. Following the decline of punch cards and paper tape, interaction via teleprinter-style keyboards became the main input method for computers.

Keyboard keys have characters engraved or printed on them, each press of a key corresponds to a single written symbol. However, producing some symbols may require pressing and holding several keys or in sequence. While most keyboard keys produce letters, numbers or signs, other keys or simultaneous key presses can produce actions or execute computer commands.

In normal usage, the keyboard is used as a text entry interface for typing text and numbers into a word processor, text editor or any other program.

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In a modern computer, the interpretation of key presses is left to the software. A computer keyboard distinguishes each physical key from every other key and reports all key presses to the controlling software. Keyboards are used for computer gaming — either regular keyboards or keyboards with special gaming features, which can expedite used keystroke combinations.

A keyboard is used to give commands to the operating system of a computer, such as Windows' Control-Alt-Delete combination. Start on your desktop or laptop: When prompted for a User Name and Password, use those created in step 2. Now all you need to do is access your corporate e-mail from your Cingular Just click exit in the top right hand corner. Contact your IT department if you do not have an account.

Using the on-screen keyboard, enter your data then tap the Enter key. When you finish the wizard, ActiveSync synchronizes your device automatically.